A new study using observations from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveals the first clear-cut evidence that the expanding debris of exploded stars produces some of the fastest-moving matter in the universe. This discovery is a major step toward meeting one of Fermi's primary mission goals.
Cosmic rays are subatomic particles that move through space at nearly the speed of light. About 90 percent of them are protons, with the remainder consisting of electrons and atomic nuclei. In their journey across the galaxy, the electrically charged particles become deflected by magnetic fields. This scrambles their paths and makes it impossible to trace their origins directly.
Through a variety of mechanisms, these speedy particles can lead to the emission of gamma rays, the most powerful form of light and a signal that travels to us directly from its sources.
Two supernova remnants, known as IC 443 and W44, are expanding into cold, dense clouds of interstellar gas. This material emits gamma rays when struck by high-speed particles escaping the remnants.
Scientists have been unable to ascertain which particle is responsible for this emission because cosmic-ray protons and electrons give rise to gamma rays with similar energies. Now, after analyzing four years of data, Fermi scientists see a gamma-ray feature from both remnants that, like a fingerprint, proves the culprits are protons.
When cosmic-ray protons smash into normal protons, they produce a short-lived particle called a neutral pion. The pion quickly decays into a pair of gamma rays. This emission falls within a specific band of energies associated with the rest mass of the neutral pion, and it declines steeply toward lower energies.
Detecting this low-end cutoff is clear proof that the gamma rays arise from decaying pions formed by protons accelerated within the supernova remnants.
Low pressure area (Invest 90A) over the Arabian Sea has become better organized and developed into Tropical Cyclone Nilofar. The system has the potential to strengthen to the equivalent of a Category 1 hurricane before its Arabian Peninsula landfall.METEOSAT-7 Infrared
The largest sunspot region of Solar Cycle 24 - Region 2192 ('beta-gamma-delta') unleashed its fourth X-class solar flare since it rotated onto the Earth side of the Sun on October 25, 2014. The event lasted more than 1 hour. It started at 16:55, peaked at 17:08
September in Europe started with the remnants of Hurricane "Cristobal", and there were several heavy rain episodes during the month - in Nuremburg, Germany on September 7, in Austria on September 12 and in Sweden on September 21 and 22.Southern France suffered
The largest region of the current solar cycle erupted with a major solar flare reaching X3.1 on October 24, 2014 at 21:41 UTC. The event started at 21:07 and ended at 22:13 UTC.A narrow CME was associated with the flare and was observed in SOHO LASCO C2 imagery beginnin
Following a week of relatively low activity, Japanese Sakurajima volcano (Showa crater/Aira caldera) has become more active again during the past days. A particularly strong vulcanian explosion occurred this morning (October 24) and produced an ash plume that rose up to
A moderately strong and impulsive solar flare measuring M4.0 at its peak time erupted from huge central region on the Sun on October 24, 2014 at 07:48 UTC. The event started at 07:37 and ended at 07:52 UTC.A Type II (664 km/s) and IV radio emission were associated with
Cerro Negro de Mayasquer volcanic complex located at the Ecuador-Colombia border is experiencing increased volcanic unrest and inflation. Authorities raised the alert level to Orange (3/4) and ordered thousands to evacuate amid fears that the recent activity under the
New activity/unrest was observed at 9 volcanoes from October 15 - 21, 2014. Ongoing activity was reported also for 9 volcanoes.New activity/unrest: Cerro Negro de Mayasquer, Colombia-Ecuador | Copahue, Central Chile-Argentina border | Etna, Sicily (Italy) | Karangetang
A major solar flare measuring X1.6 at its peak time erupted from Region 2192 on October 22, 2014. The event started at 14:02, peaked at 14:28 and ended at 14:50 UTC.R3 - Strong radio blackout produced significant HF signal fading on the sunlit side of Earth. There are a
The final eclipse event of 2014 occurs at the Moon's ascending node in southern Virgo on Thursday, October 23, 2014. This will be a partial solar eclipse almost exclusively visible from Canada and the USA. Except for the far northeast, a sunset eclipse will be visib
Remnants of Hurricane "Gonzalo", the first Category 4 Atlantic hurricane since Ophelia in 2011, reached United Kingdom on October 21, 2014, with strong winds of up to 123 km/h (77 mph). One person has died as the tail end of Gonzalo hit land causing
A strong solar flare measuring M8.7 erupted from Region 2192 (beta-gamma-delta) at 01:59 UTC on October 22, 2014. The event started at 01:16 and ended at 02:28.A 10cm Radio Burst (1min / 590 sfu) was associated with the event. A 10cm radio burst indicates that the elec
Seismic activity at Iceland's Bardarbunga volcano is still high, the eruption at Holuhraun continues and the Aviation Colour Code for the volcano remains at ‘Orange’. The European Geosciences Union (EGU) warned this morning that strong jet stream could t
Comet Siding Spring hurtled past Mars at about 56 km/s only 139 000 km away from its surface at 18:27 UTC on October 19, 2014. The period when dust from the comet was most likely to reach Mars and the orbits of spacecraft around Mars peaked about 100 minutes later. Acco
A strong and shallow earthquake measuring M6.0 [downgraded to M5.6] on the Richter scale hit Ecuador-Colombia border region (Cerro Negro de Mayasque volcanic complex) on October 20, 2014 at 19:31 UTC (14:33 local time). USGS is reporting depth of 10 km (6.2 miles). EMSC
Increased solar activity continued today as five M and multiple mid-level C-class solar flares erupted from large 'beta-gamma-delta' classified Active Region 2192. This region is located in the southeast quadrant and is still rotating toward the center of the di
A slow moving low pressure system coming from the Caribbean Sea started affecting Nicaragua and surrounding countries on October 9th dumping record amounts of heavy rainfall. By October 20th, floods and landslides that followed claimed lives of more than 30 people throu
Tropical Storm "Trudy" formed about 140 km southwest of Mexico on Friday and made landfall about 125 km east of Acapulco on Saturday morning (local time), October 18, 2014. Trudy had maximum sustained winds of around 100 km/h (62 mph) when it hit. A sharp weak
A major, long duration solar flare measuring X1.1 at its peak time erupted on October 19, 2014. The source was large Active Region 2192 (beta-gamma) located in the southeast quadrant. The event started at 04:17, peaked at 05:03 and ended at 05:48 UTC.The region is still
Tropical Storm "Ana" reached hurricane status on Friday, October 17, and approached the Big Island of Hawaii late evening. Ana is currently producing high waves along some shorelines. Heavy rains prompted a flood advisory, strong winds caused officials to
A long duration M-class solar flare measuring M1.6 at its peak time erupted on October 18, 2014. The source was large Active Region 2192 which just emerged from the southeast limb. The event started at 07:02, peaked at 07:58 and ended at 08:49 UTC.This region already ha
Hurricane "Gonzalo" made a full landfall on British island of Bermuda about 23:30 UTC (20:30 local time) on Friday, October 17, as the 56 km wide (35 miles) eye of the storm crossed the south-central coast of the island, the U.S. National Hurricane Center in
Human beings around the world may be witnessing one of the most significant dramas in the modern history of the space sciences. The ESA’s Rosetta mission to the comet 67P has shattered the theoretical predictions of standard comet science.For many decades, we
Comet Siding Spring will make its historic approach to Mars around 18:27 UTC on Sunday, October 19, 2014, and pass within 139 500 km (88 000 miles) away from planet's surface. That is less than half the distance between Earth and its moon and less than one-tenth
A Tropical Storm Watch was issued yesterday for Hawaii County, Hawaii, as Tropical Storm "Ana" continues on its path toward the islands. Heavy rainfall is expected to reach the Big Island on Friday, October 17, 2014 causing life-threatening flash floods and mu
Almost 3 billion gallons of oil industry wastewater have been illegally dumped into central California aquifers that supply drinking water and farming irrigation, according to state documents obtained by the Center for Biological Diversity. The wastewater entered the aq
An impulsive solar flare measuring M4.3 at its peak time erupted from the southeast limb of the Sun on October 16, 2014. The event started at 12:58, peaked at 13:03 and ended at 13:05 UTC.A 10cm Radio Burst (TenFlare) lasting 1 minute (180 sfu) was associated with the e
Hydraulic fracturing triggered a series of small earthquakes in 2013 on a previously unmapped fault in Harrison County, Ohio, according to a study published in the journal Seismological Research Letters (SRL) on October 14, 2014. Nearly 400 small earthquakes occurred be
Hurricane "Gonzalo", the second major hurricane of the 2014 Atlantic season after Hurricane "Edouard", has strengthened overnight and is again a dangerous Category 4 hurricane today as it tracks toward the small British island territory of Bermuda.
Heavy rain unleashed by Tropical Cyclone "Hudhud" which made made landfall in Andhra Pradesh at India's east coast around 05:00 UTC on Sunday, October 12, 2014, caused flooding and mudslides across portions of eastern India but that was not the end of
New activity/unrest was observed at 5 volcanoes from October 8 - 14, 2014. Ongoing activity was reported for 13 volcanoes.New activity/unrest: Copahue, Central Chile-Argentina border | Mayon, Luzon (Philippines) | Ontakesan, Honshu (Japan) | Poas, Costa Rica | Sinab
Using a first-of-its-kind, high-resolution numerical model to describe ocean circulation during the last ice age about 21 000 years ago, oceanographer Alan Condron of the University of Massachusetts Amherst has shown that icebergs and meltwater from the North American i
Solar activity reached moderate levels during last 24 hours (by 12:30 UTC today) with impulsive M1.1 solar flare (R1 radio blackout) at 18:37 UTC on October 14. This event had an associated Tenflare (1300 sfu), but no other CME related radio signatures. The flare appear
A professor at Tohoku University in Japan, Keiji Nagatani, has spent last 10 years developing robotic systems specifically designed to operate in harsh conditions near active volcanoes. Nagatani's aim is to design robots which can go where humans can't and effec
It is known that Earth’s magnetic field has flipped many times throughout the planet’s history. Its dipole magnetic field remains about the same intensity for thousands to millions of years, but for incompletely known reasons it occasionally weakens (such is