A landslide that occurred on December 31, 2014, in northernmost Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir blocked the Tsarap river (also called the Phutkal river) creating 8 kilometers (5 miles) long artificial lake. Aerial surveys suggest the mound of debris blocking the river
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Except where otherwise noted content on The Watchers website is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike license.
Our site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to our readers under the provisions of “fair use” in an effort to advance a better understanding of global events, environmental issues, human rights, social issues, health, science and all other issues that we believe are important for human evolution and better understanding of life on Earth. We believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of the copyrighted material as provided for in Section 107 of the US Copyright Law which contains a list of the various purposes for which the reproduction of a particular work may be considered fair, such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. If you wish to use such copyrighted material for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’… you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. In accordance with Title 17 US Copyright Law Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.
As regards the use of copyrighted material within the European Union. The European Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of May 22, 2001 on the harmonization of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society provides in its art. 5 an exhaustive list of exemptions that can be implemented by the Member States.
Amongst that list, the exemption(s) invoked must cover the reproduction and communication to the public (since the publication on the Internet implies those two acts). Generally, exemptions will be based on the purpose of the intended use. For instance, the Directive provides for an exemption to the exclusive right of reproduction and communication to the public when it is made for the sole purpose of illustration for teaching or scientific research, as long as the source, including the author’s name, is indicated, unless this turns out to be impossible and to the extent justified by the non-commercial purpose to be achieved.
Another exemption is “reproduction by the press, communication to the public or making available of published articles on current economic, political or religious topics or of broadcast works or other subject-matter of the same character, in cases where such use is not expressly reserved, and as long as the source, including the author’s name, is indicated, or use of works or other subject-matter in connection with the reporting of current events, to the extent justified by the informatory purpose and as long as the source, including the author’s name, is indicated, unless this turns out to be impossible”.
The economic benefit of fair use
A balanced copyright law provides an economic benefit to many high tech businesses such as search engines and software developers. Fair Use is also crucial to non-technology industries such as insurance, legal services, and newspaper publishers. On September 12, 2007, the Computer and Communications Industry Association (CCIA), a group representing companies including Google Inc., Microsoft Inc., Oracle Corporation, Sun Microsystems, Yahoo and other high tech companies, released a study that found that Fair Use exceptions to US copyright laws were responsible for more than $4,500 billion dollars in annual revenue for the United States economy representing one-sixth of the total US GDP. The study was conducted using a methodology developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization. The study found that fair use dependent industries are directly responsible for more than eighteen percent of US economic growth and nearly eleven million American jobs. “As the United States economy becomes increasingly knowledge-based, the concept of fair use can no longer be discussed and legislated in the abstract. It is the very foundation of the digital age and a cornerstone of our economy,” said Ed Black, President and CEO of CCIA. “Much of the unprecedented economic growth of the past ten years can actually be credited to the doctrine of fair use, as the Internet itself depends on the ability to use content in a limited and unlicensed manner.”
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In the event that any provision of these Terms and Conditions is found invalid or unenforceable pursuant to any judicial decree or decision, such provision shall be deemed to apply only to the maximum extent permitted by law, and the remainder of these Terms and Conditions shall remain valid and enforceable according to its terms.
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- change or remove (temporarily or permanently) the Website or any part of it without notice and you confirm that The Watchers shall not be liable to you for any such change or removal and
- change these Terms & Conditions at any time, and your continued use of the Website following any changes shall be deemed to be your acceptance of such change.
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